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   Lumbee Timeline

• 1700's
• 1800's
• 1900's
• Present Day

1700's

1703
Cheraws leave Danville, Virginia area for Cheraw, South Carolina.
1703-1737
Cheraws are documented as living on the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.
1711-1712
Cheraws participate in intertribal warfare against Tuscarora in war in northeastern NC.
1715
Cheraws participate in Cofitachiqui Indian alliance in Yamassee War.
1725
John Herbert, Commissioner of Indian Trade for the Wineau Factory publishes a map in 1725 and identifies enclaves of Cheraw, Pee Dee, Waccamaw, and Scavano Indians who continue to live on their traditional lands along the Pee Dee River at what is now the border of North Carolina and South Carolina, and near its tributary Drowning Creek in Robeson County, North Carolina.
1737
Cheraws sell their land on the Great Pee Dee River in South Carolina.
1753
Drowning Creek (now Lumbee River) is proclaimed a "frontier to the Indians" by Carolina Governor Rowan.
1754
Fifty Indian families are living on Drowning Creek without official deeds to the land. Surveyor shot in Bladen Creek, NC.
1771
Cheraw settlement on Drowning Creek documented in the South Carolina Gazette.
1775-1783
Lumbees, including John Brooks, serve in Revolutionary War.
1790
United States Census lists prominent Lumbee family names, including Locklear, Oxendine, Chavis, Lowry, Hammonds, Brooks, Brayboy, Cumbo, Revels, Carter and Kersey, as "All other free persons."
1800s
1812
Several Lumbees, including Thomas "Big Tom" Locklear and Silas Strickland, muster during War of 1812.
1835
North Carolina passes laws preventing Indians from voting, or owning or using firearms.
1861-1865
Lumbees serve in Civil War.
1865-1872
Henry Berry Lowrie war in Robeson County to fight oppression of the Lumbee people.
1885
The North Carolina General Assembly recognizes the Indians of Robeson County as Croatan and establishes a separate school system for the Indian.
1887
Lumbee people build Croatan Indian Normal School (now The University of North Carolina at Pembroke).
1888
North Carolina State Constitution changes, returning citizenship rights to Lumbee.
1890
North Carolina Supreme Court rules that Indian school committees have ultimate authority as to whether children are Indians and therefore eligible for tribal schools. The Croatan school board sets up "blood committees" to determine a child's right to attend the school based on his or her blood purity.
1900s
1911
The North Carolina General Assembly changes the name of the tribe to "Indians of Robeson County."
1912
The Department of Interior sent Charles F. Pierce, the Supervisor of Indian Schools, to Robeson County to conduct a study of the tribe. Pierce reported that the state and county were providing funds to educate the 1,976 school-age Indian children. He also stated in his report that "…one would readily class a large majority [of the Lumbee] as being at least three-fourths Indian".
1913
North Carolina legislature changes the tribe's name from Croatan to Cherokee Indians of Robeson County.
1914
Indian Agent O. M. McPherson concludes the Lumbee to be of Cheraw descent.
1917-1918
Lumbees serve in World War I.
1924
Tribe unsuccessfully petitions Federal Government for recognition as Siouan Indians.
1933
Smithsonian Institution anthropologist, John R. Swanton, studies the tribe, declares Lumbee to be of Cheraw Indian origin, and other closely related Siouan speaking tribes.
1934
Lumbee leaders join the National Congress of American Indians.
1941-1945
Lumbee serve in World War II.
1950-1953
Lumbee serve in Korean War.
1952
Following the leadership of D.F. Lowrie and other community leaders the tribe votes to adopt the name Lumbee.
1953
North Carolina changes name of tribe from Cherokee to Lumbee.
1956
The U.S. Congress recognizes name change and recognizes the Lumbee as American Indians. Specific language in the Lumbee Act, however, denies the tribe the customary Indian benefits.
1957-1975
Lumbees serve in Vietnam War.
1958
Over five hundred armed Lumbees rout a group of protesting Ku Klux Klan members led by Wizard James W. "Catfish" Cole in a confrontation near Maxton, North Carolina. The Lumbee receive national attention. Indians Rout The Klan (From the Native American Resource Center at UNC Pembroke) The event is remembered as the "Battle of Hayes Pond" and ends Klan intimidation of the Lumbee.
1971
First Indian-owned bank in US - Lumbee Bank - opens in Pembroke, NC.
1973
Henry Ward Oxendine, Lumbee, is first North Carolina-born Indian to serve in NC House of Representatives.

1976
Outdoor drama Strike At The Wind, story of Henry Berry Lowrie, opens in Pembroke, NC.
1977
May 7, 1977 Mr. Purnell Swett was appointed the first Indian Superintendent of a County School System in the State of North Carilina.
1987
Lumbee petition U.S. Department of the Interior for federal acknowledgment and entry to tribal rolls. Petition is denied due to language in the Lumbee Act of 1956.
The University of North Carolina at Pembroke celebrates 100th anniversary.
1991
Lumbees serve in Gulf War.
1994
Glen Maynor was elected sheriff of Robeson County and Joanne Locklear was elected Clerk of Court for Robeson County, the first Lumbees to hold these positions

PRESENT DAY

2001
Lumbee Tribal Government sworn in.
2003
Bills introduced in the House of Representatives (H.R. 898) and the Senate (S.420) to extend full federal recognition to the tribe.
Lumbee Tribal Council elected.
Lumbees serve in Afghanistan and Iraq.
2003
Mr. Purnell Swett became the 1st elected Superintendent of the Public Schools of Robeson County after the merger of the county and city school systems.
2004
Lumbee Tribal Government sworn in.
2005
Bills Introduced into the Senate by Sen. Elizabeth Dole(S.660)
2007
Bill introduced into the Senate by Elizabeth Dole(S.333)introduced into the House by Rep Mike McIntyre (H.R.65) Bill H.R. 65 passed the house but the legislation died in the Senate and didnt continue
2009
January 6, 2009, US Representative Mike McIntyre introduced legislation (H.R. 31) intended to grant the Lumbee Indians federal recognition.
June 3, 2009, the US House voted 240 to 179 for federal recognition for the Lumbee tribe, acknowledging that they are the descendants of the Cheraw tribe. 
October 22, 2009, the United States Senate Committee on Indian Affairs approved a bill for federal recognition of the Lumbee.

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